UA-143880525-1 How do Stars Create Black Holes - Science of Cosmology

How do Stars Create Black Holes

How do Stars Create Black Holes 

What is a Black hole? Where are the Black holes? How did black holes form? If you search google answers to these questions they all give the same information. 

"A black hole is a region in space where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that even light is not able to escape. The strong gravity occurs because matter has been pressed into a tiny space. "

This image is a composite of black hole M87 in a galaxy of stars.

"A Black hole forms when a massive star has used up all of its fuel for fusion. If the fusion reaction stops in a star gravity implodes the matter into the core. Two things happen, the star goes Supernova and explodes the outer shell into space and the inner core goes inward to form a Black hole." 

I’m not satisfied with these Google answers. I want to know more...

What’s inside of Black Holes? 

What’s inside of Black holes? Where does matter go in Black holes? What happens to Black holes? The honest answer is we don’t know. Yet, if you google an answer they all say something like this. 

The event horizon is a proposed boundary around a black hole. On the other side of it, the gravitational pull of the black hole is so strong that, in order to escape it, an object would have to be moving faster than the speed of light, a feat that almost all physicists agree is impossible

 Although the singularity inside the black hole is infinitely small the black hole would appear to be the size of its event horizon, and to all effects is. 

When matter falls into the event horizon it becomes isolated from the rest of space and time and has, effectively, disappeared from the universe that we exist in. 

Wow, did that explain enough to satisfy your curiosity? I want to know more...

What is the Purpose of Black Holes?

How about looking at Black holes in a different way? Why do Black Holes Exist? What is the purpose of Black holes? What goes on inside black holes? I have some suggestions that seem real, however, we will possibly never know the true answers.

 

I am of the belief that everything has a purpose in the universe, including black holes, but I’m not sure of the stupidity of mass media. Just kidding... 

What is the Size of a Black Hole 

Cosmology measures the mass and speed of rotation of nearby stars that orbit a black hole. Using Isaac Newton’s laws of the gravitational constant, the mass of a black hole is calculated. 

The largest super massive black hole in the Milky Way's vicinity appears to be that of M87, at a mass of (6.4±0.5)×109 (about 6.4 billion times the Mass of the Sun) and is at a distance of 53.5 million light-years from Earth.

They say the size of the accretion disk is 700 times the distance to the Sun (700 x 149,600,000 Km).  This black hole’s size is estimated to be about 42 uas (units of micro arc seconds). A measure of the viewing angle, not sure how to explain that.

In April of 2019, this was the first real photo of a black hole, thus, proving the existence of black holes. This image of M87 is worth more than 1,000 words. 

The first photograph of a black hole in the Virgo constellation has been named M87

How does a Supernova Really Happen 

In the early universe massive stars formed quickly from the raw material of the big bang. These stars burn hydrogen atoms in a fusion reaction creating helium atoms.

Imagine what created the star in the first place. Particles in space with hydrogen and helium clouds grouped together by the attractive force of gravity. When enough matter is present the strong force of gravity creates a fusion reaction using hydrogen as the starting fuel. 

When hydrogen is used up helium is fused turning it into carbon. These fusion reactions continue until iron is produced. Iron doesn’t fuse properly so the fusion reaction slows down and stops.

Iron is the lightest element in the periodic table that doesn't release energy when you attempt to fuse it together. 

When a star tries to fuse iron it uses up thermal energy, instead of giving you energy it takes away energy. 

The atomic fusion explosions in stars acts against the strong pull of gravity towards the center of the star. The outward energy of fusion counteracts the force of gravity. This prevents new elements that are created during fusion from falling into the center of the star.

The Special Property of Iron 

When iron is created the fusion reaction has run out of fuel and the fireworks are going to go off in a big bang. The strong nuclear force of fusion was keeping the outer mass of the star from being pulled into the core of the star. 

When fusion stops all the outer matter collapses by gravity towards the iron core in an implosion of the star.

The outer edges of the core collapse inward about 23% the speed of light. In just a few seconds, in falling material bounces off the iron core of the star, creating a shock wave of matter propagating outward. This shock wave explosion can take a couple of hours to reach the surface depending on the size of the star.

As the wave passes through, it creates exotic new elements that the original star could never form in its core. This is where we make money! 

The implosion happens very quickly and during the collapse, the nuclei in the outer parts of the star are pushed very close together, so close that elements heavier than iron are formed.

Gold, silver, platinum, uranium and anything higher than iron on the periodic table of elements are created here. 

A supernova will then take a few days or even months to reach its brightest point as the supernova explosion sends the outer shell of material into space.

How does a Supernova Create a Black Hole Step by Step

How does a star go supernova and how does a star’s supernova create a black hole? 

A star with a mass greater than 20 times the mass of our Sun may produce a black hole at the end of its life. 

If a very massive star exhausts its nuclear fuel it explodes as a supernova.

Step One

How does a supernova happen?

When the nuclear fusion stops the outer edge of the star implodes into the inner core due to the strong force of gravity. 

Step Two

An explosion takes place and the outer parts of the star are expelled violently into space.

During the supernova explosion the iron core completely collapses under its own weight. However, there is an added reaction that occurs due to the conservation of energy and motion. 

Step Three

A 3rd reaction happens inside the Core.

Newton's third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The law means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the forces on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.

Inside a star’s supernova reaction there is another reaction. The explosion of the outer layers of the star into space makes an equal force into the core of the star. There is no such thing as a force that is not accompanied by an equal and opposite force.

Step Four

Since energy cannot be created or destroyed what happens to the star’s core mass and energy during and after a supernova?

The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy (such as a supernova) the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as a system’s mass cannot change, so the quantity of mass can neither be added nor be removed.

Step Five 

What Happens inside a Supernova Reaction? 

There must be something else that happens inside the iron core to create a black hole. The mathematical answer is that when the atoms of iron get pushed into a tight space then the gravity all of a sudden increases into a singularity. This unknown reaction somehow becomes a black hole.

What really happens to create a Black Hole? There is a 3rd reaction inside the star. There is no such thing as a force that is not accompanied by an equal and opposite force.

The implosion of the outer layers of the star into the iron core sets off the supernova explosion.

The visible explosion is one of the most violent and destructive forces that we can see in the universe. Yet, there is an even more powerful event that remains invisible to us because of the strong light emitted by the supernova blocking our view. 

The explosion of the supernova blasts much of the star’s mass into space and there is an equal and opposite force into the iron core.

Imagine the process. When the star’s fusion reaction stopped the immense strength of gravity pulled the outer layers into the core. This sudden implosion created a huge explosion called a supernova that sent much of the star into space

An equal and opposite force went into the iron core that was in the process of collapsing under its gravity. 

These two reactions (the supernova explosion and the imploding iron core) combined into a powerful force that shocked the fabric of space itself. 

This unseen force created a tear into the fabric of space resulting in a black hole.

Step Six

How can the star’s supernova matter escape the strong gravity of the black hole?

The remaining outer layers of the star continue exploding and shooting the remnants into space. This supernova can last up to a month. 

Most of the mass has enough kinetic energy to escape the new black hole. Or maybe a new black hole needs time to grow to get stronger. 

Eventually the material that was ejected into space can form new stars that end up rotating around the Black hole in the creation of a galaxy.

Step Seven

How can a black hole that forms have more mass than the original massive star?

Mass and energy can not be created or destroyed.

The core mass doesn’t even have enough gravity to prevent the star’s outer mass from flying away. 

But, over time the new black hole will gain more mass and get stronger as it starts to attract more matter.

Step Eight

The popular belief is that when the core collapses, the iron atoms (which are made of quarks and gluons) become a black hole with a powerful gravitational field.

Scientists throw away all the laws of physics and make up stuff? They should at least say they don’t know how black holes are created. 

They say that the gravitational force is so strong that even light can’t escape the strong force of gravity. Yet, the other half of the star can escape for up to a month long period? 

Step Nine

Where does the strong force of gravity really come from? 

Gravity is a property of mass that has quarks and gluons. The more mass the stronger the force because it’s an additive force that has a long range effect.

The logical answer uses quantum science. The immense energy exerted on the iron core of the star created a phase transition. The iron atoms had enough energy to create a tear into another level of the universe.

At this point I must point out that science does not believe in other levels (or dimensions) so they invented a possible story to hide their ignorance. Yet, they are at a loss to explain what dark matter and energy is. 

My theory is that a dark hole is an opening (like a portal) into a different region, level or dimension depending on the language used. 

That is why these dark holes have such a strong gravitational field. The strong gravity comes from the other dimension as a long range force. 

It’s this gravitational force that is the cause of the expanding universe. We call it dark energy which is a very poor description of gravity.

Step Ten

The Black holes attract more matter and become larger and stronger. 

Is this why we only have 4% of the matter in our “universe”?  When enough matter has entered the black hole it passes through a phase transition similar to what the star’s iron core experienced. 

Thus, our visible universe keeps losing matter into a higher level dimension. This is proof that other dimensions exist. As we see more and more matter disappearing, perhaps scientists will see that my theory is correct. 

Black holes are like portals into a higher level dimension moving matter into higher frequency dimensions.

Step Eleven

Nikola Tesla said, “to understand the universe, study energy, frequency and vibrations.”

Where does Matter go in the Black Holes? 

When matter goes into black holes it takes part in increasing the entropy in the universe. Matter goes into a phase transition membrane and arrives into another level of energy known as another dimension (perhaps the 5th dimension). 

The matter disappears from our dimension and it becomes dark matter. This explains where matter is going and where dark matter is located. 

Perhaps someone can come up with the math that proves my theory and therefore proves that other dimensions exist.

I hope my theoretical explanation of physics and cosmology is giving you the sense of amazement and adventure that I have. I am always looking for the ultimate truth that makes the universe work. Please, join me as we travel in this evolution of science. Subscribe to my posts for the latest news. Thanks for your time and as always be well. https://lovinthings.com 

About the Author Erik Lovin

Erik has a BSc degree and is a retired professional photographer who is now a published Author of many books. His passion is understanding how life and the universe works. He is currently blogging about the science of the Big Bang and the science of cosmology. Erik is helping his tribe with questions about the universe. His goal is to help find a theory of everything (TOE). In order to do that, he is trying to prove light has mass and that the fabric of spacetime is a false theory. We are welcoming questions and answers that you might have about the universe.

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