Why Does Light Have a Speed Limit?
Here is a straightforward answer.
The universe began moving into space at the speed of light about 13.8 billion years ago.
And it’s still moving at the same speed.
It can’t expand faster into space than the universe is moving.
The future doesn’t exist as a location.
So, nothing can move forward faster towards the future than the universe's speed limit.
That also means nothing can move backward to the past that doesn’t exist.
The only moment in the universe is the present moment that we are experiencing.
This simple concept seems challenging to comprehend, but it makes sense and answers the question.
How Can a Mass Bend Space and Time?
Space and time are invisible things and concepts that are related because humans can’t function without having space and time.
Einstein tried to find a theory of gravity and instead described the acceleration force of gravity by combining the location and time of an object approaching a large mass.
This geometric description of acceleration became his general relativity theory.
But Minkowski made the theory a mess by adding his idea that space and time always exist together, calling it Spacetime.
However, Einstein warned us not to emphasize the geometric description as a physical thing.
But Minkowski was his senior professor, and he died the same year, so Einstein let the idea of curved space have a life of its own.
Now we have a big mess with textbooks showing that gravity is a physical thing that distorts space.
I can't imagine mass having that kind of power.
Your question asks, how can a mass bend space without energy?
The answer is that it can't.
The energy is in the mass as E=mc2, and the energy also has a force that creates gravity.
Since we haven’t discovered how mass creates gravity, we are left with the pseudo force called Spacetime.
Even famous scientists like Neil deGrasse Tyson make the mistake of saying you can't have a location without time or a time without a location.
But think about it, space doesn't define a location unless you are on Earth and using an accurate tool (clock) that measures motion.
From Earth, we can't define space-time using a location and time.
However, we use GPS to define our location and time on Earth.
It's a complicated system that does not use relativity as most people think.
Monitoring stations on Earth send the time from a reference clock to the satellite, and the satellite sends that time to your phone.
Then 3 to 4 satellites triangulate your location on Earth.
Spacetime only exists in theory, and time is meaningless when you leave Earth.
I hope that helps you to understand the relationship and description of Spacetime. Thanks for your question
How Can You Measure Time in Space?
It's impossible to measure time because time is already a measurement of Earth's motion.
Clocks always measure a repetitive motion.
The sundial shows the shadow from the sun moving across the earth. The pendulum clock measures the swinging motion of the pendulum.
Regular clocks move at the rate of Earth's rotation, and atomic clocks measure the oscillations in a cesium atom. Where does time come from?
A clock shows us a number, and we call it time.
We use the word "time" to mean the elapsed measurement of motion.
Time doesn’t exist except on clocks and our thoughts.
We give time the power of creation by thinking time makes things happen.
Thanks for your time, lol. To fully understand time, start by reading my book Einstein Misled By Time. Find it on Amazon here.
These were 3 new questions people have asked me, which aren't in my book, but there are 120 other questions answered.
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