7 Best Reasons why Light has Mass
Does a photon have mass? Light is made up of individual particles called photons. A photon of light is too small to be detected on its own. However, Einstein believed that photons are massless. After 110 years of research and experimentation do we still say light is massless? Scientists still say that light has zero mass. Can we blame scientists for this light error?
Let’s look at the 7 best ways to show that light has mass.
1. The Photoelectric Effect
In 1922 Albert Einstein received his Nobel prize in physics for his theory of the photoelectric effect. When a high enough frequency of light shines onto metal, electrons can be released to create a current of electricity. These electrons are called photoelectrons.
Because of this work he proved that light is made up of individual quanta of light called a photon. This is the smallest part of light. It is so small that you need at least 45 photons for the eye to register that you are seeing light.
The frequency of the photons is the determining factor to release electrons. It is not the amplitude or intensity of the light. Therefore, he proved that the quanta of light is a particle. This changed the understanding of scientists to say that light is a dual wave-particle.
However it also shows that light has momentum and a Relativistic Mass. That means we are closer to believing that light and all photons have passive gravitational mass. This means that photons will be attracted to gravity but not to other photons or electrons.
2. The Supercooled Rubidium experiment.
Einstein predicted the Bose-Einstein Condensate that became a new kind of matter.
This new state of matter emerges when a dilute gas is cooled to almost absolute 0 degrees kelvin.
When you cool a gas down to a solid and then keep taking energy out of the matter until almost all molecular movement has stopped it transforms into a new type of matter.
Researchers pumped rubidium atoms into a vacuum tube and chilled them down almost to absolute zero to make a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Then they fired weak laser pulses to send photons into the cloud of cold atoms.
While passing through the cloud of rubidium the photons slowed down. When two photons were fired at the same time, they exited together, like a molecule.
That’s not all. When 3 photons stuck together resembling an atom they measured a small mass. Another experiment actually stopped light for one entire minute.
This is proof that light has mass! How can a massless wave particle stop, combine with another wave and have a mass?
Remember there is no momentum or kinetic energy present, only the rest mass of photons.
3. Electrons and Light
An electron is like a tiny magnet that has an energy particle orbiting the main particle.
Normally electrons are surrounding an atom in a specific orbital. However, the electron itself also has a particle in its orbital.
If electrons didn’t exist we wouldn’t have any light. Photons don’t exist on their own; they must be created by electrons.
If the sun stopped shining we can still create light from electrons. Such as with battery powered flashlights and fire or even with our cell phones.
The study of electrons has opened up new answers about light and quantum particles. Swedish scientists have made a video of an electron.
It shows there is a small particle in the center and it’s surrounded by an energy field that vibrates.
It was discovered that the energy field around an electron is the same as a photon. A photon in the energy orbital of an electron?
The electron has a rest mass of 0.511 Mev or 9.1 x 10^-31 kg . It is 1836 times lighter than a proton that has a positive charge of one.
An electron is a point-like fundamental particle with a negative charge of one and the electron has the energy of a photon in its orbit.
Remember energy is equivalent to mass at the quantum level.
It’s very interesting that photons made electrons during the Big Bang.
Now electrons make photons to give us light. Light doesn’t exist on their own, they must be created by electrons.
When an electron undergoes any type of reaction it emits a photon. Energy such as mechanical, electrical, chemical, nuclear or quantum force can react with an electron.
What happens during such a reaction? The electron adds the energy to the photon orbital so it can go to a higher energy orbit in an atom. However, that energy is immediately given back as one photon of light.
This is a very fast process so the photon emitted could be the original orbital in the electron. The question is, does the photon have mass?
The vibrating electron particle creates an electromagnetic field around the electron particle.
This field is the photon orbiting the electron. Because the photon has the electromagnetic field created by the electron it must have mass. Energy and mass are always together.
My understanding is that any electromagnetic field must have a particle of mass with it.
That particle or photon was orbiting the electron at light speed. Electrons are fundamental particles with a dual wave particle nature and electrons create photons.
4.Gravity, Electrons and Speed of Light
An electron has mass but it’s a fundamental particle that does not have a gravity field. It has an electromagnetic field! Electrons are not attracted to other electrons because they lack gravity. And they are repelled by the similar negative charge of other electrons.
However, they are attracted to particles or matter that has a gravity field. Particles with quarks all have a gravity field. Such as, protons, neutrons, and all atoms.
The force of quantum gravity comes from the gluon interaction with quarks using an action called quantum chromodynamics.
So quantum particles like electrons and neutrinos and even photons have mass. They do not have a gravity field, but they are attracted to gravity.
Do you think that if light has any mass it can’t travel at the speed of light?
One of Einstein’s laws in General Relativity states that particles that have mass can’t travel at the speed of light.
But, in quantum mechanics of small elementary particles it’s different.
The photon is already going at the speed of light inside the electron’s energy field.
5. The Mass of a Photon
The photon is a physical particle and it carries the electromagnetic field from the electron.
All particles that have an electromagnetic field must have mass.
A brief search on Wikipedia shows that the mass of a photon is less than 1 x 10^-18 eV/c^2 (electron volts per speed of light squared). In mass units, the photon weighs 4.7 x 10^-38 kg.
Planck’s Constant is the value of the energy of a photon related to its frequency; it would be too complex if each photon had a different mass.
My idea is that each photon has the same mass. The only difference is the frequency of energy in the photon.
General Relativity says that a particle must have a rest mass to be a particle.
That is why Einstein said the photon must be massless because it’s never at rest.
6. Photons are Attracted to Gravity
Einstein believed that light was massless, which seems funny because he
proved that light is made of particles called photons.
To explain why massless light is attracted to gravity he came out with his general relativity theory that mass causes the fabric of spacetime to distort.
Then the distortion allows light to follow a curved path around large objects that have mass.
But, the quantum world is different and Einstein didn’t know about quarks and gluons.
He didn’t know that light has a small mass and that’s why it is attracted to gravity.
He didn’t know atoms are made of quarks and gluons and are held together by the strong nuclear force so that atoms are the source of quantum gravity.
Gravity starts inside an atom and gravity attracts matter, it doesn’t move space into distortions just so light can be attracted to gravity.
The gravity field in black holes is so strong that not even light can escape the pull of gravity.
Light is attracted to Black holes because light has mass, not because space is distorted.
7. Light has Energy
The simple truth is that we can see and feel the energy of light. It tans our skin and grows our garden.
Einstein’s famous equation E=mc2 is about the equivalence of energy and mass.
We know light has energy so if the mass m=0 then the energy equals zero.
You can’t have energy without mass or mass without energy it’s as simple as that.
Science admits that light has momentum and kinetic energy but they won’t admit that Einstein was wrong.
What does this new information mean?
This changes everything in physics. It means that Einstein was wrong about his fabric spacetime theory of gravity.
It means light is attracted to a large mass because it has mass period.
Light has mass so we can understand why it’s attracted to gravity. All our
questions are answered and the simple truth is that light has mass.
If this was a soap opera sitcom it seems that scientists have been hiding the fact that light has a mass in order to protect their preconceived theories.
They needed light to be massless to support Einstein’s theory of gravity using his theory of general relativity.
The entire theory of general relativity is based on the fact that gravity isn’t a force and that space has distortions so that massless light follows the path of curved space.
Now that we know photons have mass how can we believe a crazy idea that mass curves space and tells objects how to move. Are you kidding me?
They say light doesn’t move in straight lines because space gets curved by mass and that gravity isn’t a force as what Sir Isaac Newton said.
I think even if space has a curvature light travels in straight lines unless acted upon by a force.
Curved space isn’t a force, gravity is the force. Ask Einstein what kind of force acts on a massless photon to make it follow a curved path?
If you say light follows the shortest path I say time has no force or power.
Since photons have mass we know that’s why light is attracted to gravity fields.
Scientists should think for themselves instead of following what they were taught?
In 2012 neutrinos were discovered to have a small mass and that they travel at the speed of light.
It doesn’t make sense that a photon is the only particle in the universe that doesn't have mass.
The good thing is that the effects of a photon’s mass will still give the same result mathematically only for a different reason.
Let’s hope that knowing the ultimate truth about photons allows us to find new ways to continue research into the quantum world of the universe.