# Einstein’s relativity theory of time states that time changes depending on your frame of reference, and that the faster you travel the slower time moves. Let’s look at some of the ways to tell time.

## A very brief history of time

In 1656 Christiaan Huygens invented the pendulum clock that was used for almost 300 years. The pendulum clock used the force of gravity to move a weighted pendulum.

It’s interesting to note that Sir Isaac Newton who invented the universal law of gravity in 1687 also made several water clocks.

If a pendulum clock is moved to a weaker area of gravity like to a mountain top it slows down and shows less time. This isn’t a type of time dilation since it’s easy to see that only the clock’s measure of time is wrong. The actual time of the day didn’t change and his twin brother living at the seashore was aging the same amount as the twin at the mountain top.

## Accurate Time Keeping

New clocks use a quartz crystal powered by electricity to tell time and in 1969 Seiko sold the first quartz wristwatch.

These quartz clocks use the frequency of quartz crystals to count time and they are very accurate for most applications even today.

Atomic clocks can keep accurate time for millions of years without losing a second. They use a cesium-133 atom that vibrates at a frequency of 9,192,631,770 Hz (cycles per second).

The cesium atom requires a specific microwave field of the correct frequency while a detector counts the correct number of oscillations required for one second.

Consider that the atomic clock must be at a certain temperature and pressure to remain perfectly accurate. Atoms can change vibrations if an outside force such as temperature, pressure or gravity changes.

However, experiments have been done to show that the twin on the mountain top has his atomic clock running faster because of the weaker field of gravity, the cooler temperature, and the smaller atmospheric pressure.

Even though the twins look the same age scientifically the twin on the mountain top is aging faster in the weaker gravity. Is that right?

Even atomic clocks are affected by gravity. It seems that gravitational time dilation can change time? Is that true? Remember the pendulum clock didn’t change time even though it was slower in the mountain. Now, we see the atomic clock is faster in the mountain top. Can we believe what Einstein said that time changes depending on your frame of reference?

Einstein’s Special Relativity theory says that time and mass change depending on the speed that an object is experiencing. Namely, that as an object travels close to the speed of light its mass will increase dramatically and time will slow down because of time dilation.

What really happens is it takes more energy to move faster and energy can be stated as more mass and that means it gets harder and harder to move an object faster and faster.

Because the object has the equivalence of more mass it experiences a greater force of gravity. This force causes the motion of a clock to slow down so that the rate of time on the clock slows to a near stop.

Einstein’s Time Dilation True or False?

Experiments have proved that time dilation and mass increases are real. But what if the experimental evidence is interpreted incorrectly?

We have noticed that historically gravity changes the measurement of all clocks. The water clock from ancient Egypt and the pendulum clock slow down in a weaker field of gravity. That’s because gravity is the power that moves these clocks so if the gravity is weaker the clocks move slower.

With the quartz clock and atomic clock time is counted by the frequencies of atoms. The force of gravity makes these clocks tick slower in a strong gravitational field and faster in a weaker field. Is this really time dilation?

I have found proof that the clocks only show a difference in its measurement of time but the actual motion of time doesn’t change.

Minkowski took Einstein’s theory of relativity and applied it to geometry to create spacetime to describe space and time as 4-dimensional. He used geometry to calculate time dilation as actual time. Einstein agreed with him that gravity changes time but I think that only the clock's ticking rate changes because of the gravitational force.

## The Photon Clock

All the clocks so far have been affected by the force of gravity causing them to gain time or lose time depending on their frame of reference.

If we could use the photons of light to measure the time it would solve the problem of gravity since photons are almost totally massless. (neglecting relativity mass)

A photon clock uses 2 perfectly reflecting mirrors bouncing a photon from one mirror to the other mirror. If it was possible to time the rate of the bouncing photon you have a type of clock not using atoms or gravity.

This diagram shows a photon bouncing between mirrors when a train is not moving and if the mirrors are moving in “Spacetime” coordinates.

The familiar thought experiment shows a photon bouncing between mirrors as the mirrors are moving on a fast train. The bouncing photon is observed by an outside observer, this would be impossible to do because photons are invisible and the train is traveling too fast to see.

The Lorentz transformation of the photon makes a triangular path during movement instead of the straight line while not moving as seen in the diagram. The reason for this is because the position of the photon is being transported onto a graph with a time axis in a new frame of reference (spacetime).

This movement from the actual train’s frame of reference into “spacetime” is either a mistake or the act of telling a falsehood.

The Lorentz transformation must be totally false because the photon’s position in the train or between the mirrors hasn’t moved, only the train has moved.

Spacetime used in this manner gives a false reading that looks like the photon clock confirms gravitational time dilation. In actual fact, the photon clock isn’t affected by gravity and so the experiment fails to say that time dilation exists. On the other hand it seems to say that there is no time dilation.

## Photon Clock Results

The bouncing photon will always go up and down in a straight line regardless of the speed of the train. A photon will stay in the same position inside the experimental frame of reference unless acted upon by an outside force. Photons don't register speed and its speed is invariant in all frames of reference.

If it was a ball that was bouncing between ping pong paddles the outside observer sees the ball moving up and down on the paddles in the same position of the train. But the speed of the train increases the force of gravity and causes the heavier ball to move slower.

If there was an atomic clock on the train it would also tick slower due to the force of gravity.

What happens with photons is that the speed of the train and the force of acceleration do not affect the photon and there is no time dilation.

Consider that gravity only affects clocks that rely on moving parts such as the frequency of atoms. Time dilation is only a measurement of time caused by the force of gravity.

The actual motion of the universe that causes time remains the same. Namely, the train moves at the same rate and light moves at the same speed.

I must conclude that time dilation is caused by gravity only to the measure of a clock’s time.

## The Invariant Motion of the Universe

This means that the motion of light remains constant at the invariant speed of light. Time is a part of the movement of light and nothing changes its motion. Time cannot slow down or move faster. Light does not slow down or stop.

I recommend that Einstein’s special relativity needs to be changed. It means Spacetime is false and other theories about black holes and time travel become questionable.

Finding out the truth about the motion of time will not lead to a crisis but will allow scientists to develop new theories for unknown phenomena.

Gravity is a force that shapes the universe and the motion of matter must move inside this force and be affected by it. However, the motion of the universe moves at the speed of causality and that speed is invariant. The speed of gravity and light are the two invariant forces that govern the movement of the universe.

This turned out to be another amazing discovery of the ultimate truth about time. If I made a mistake in this article please let me know so I can correct it. https://lovinthings.com

Thank you for being here and as always be well.

### About the Author Erik Lovin

Erik has a BSc degree and is a retired professional photographer who is now a published Author of many books. His passion is understanding how life and the universe works. He is currently blogging about the science of the Big Bang and the science of cosmology. Erik is helping his tribe with questions about the universe. His goal is to help find a theory of everything (TOE). In order to do that, he is trying to prove light has mass and that the fabric of spacetime is a false theory. We are welcoming questions and answers that you might have about the universe.